This Evaporation-Powered Engine Can Drive a Tiny Car

Artificial muscles may move the machines of the future, and the only power they need is evaporating water.

Researchers at Columbia University have built artificial muscles that expand and contract with changing humidity, and in the lab, they’re already powering LEDs and propelling miniature cars.

The Power of Evaporation
“Engineered systems rarely, if ever, use evaporation as a source of energy, despite myriad examples of such adaptations in the biological world,” wrote lead author

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