The human genome is composed of some 3 billion base pairs, the individual molecules that compose our DNA. A mutation to just a single base pair can have dramatic consequences if it occurs in certain locations. Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease and more are caused by point mutations, or aberrations in just a single letter of our DNA.
Those letters, A, T, C and G, represent the four molecules, or nucleotides, that comprise the alphabet of our genomes. In research publis